Friday, October 06, 2006

TRADITIONAL METHODS ILL EFFECTS AND DANGERS SUBSTITUTE METHODS FOUND

Etching copper plates:
nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, Dutch mordant, ferric chloride.

Etching zinc plates:
nitric, ferric chloride.

Nitrogen dioxide poisoning damage to eyes, lungs, nasal membranes., skin damage.

See above

Electrolytic processes: for all metal plates -
galv-etch and galv-on

'Bordeaux etch' non-electrolytic substitute for etching zinc plates.

Hard and soft ground:
Smoked turpentine based wax and asphaltum grounds; turpentine based wax and grease.
Irritation of mucous membranes, Nausea, headaches, toxic or carcinogenic fumes when heated, depression of central nervous system. Insulating ink ground:
relief printing ink applied by soft roller - after drying as hard ground - before drying as soft ground.
Aquatint:
powdered pine rosin; powdered asphaltum
Rosin dust allergy, toxic rosin fumes, carcinogenic asphaltum fumes. Fractint - grounding with relief printing ink, produced in press.
Stopping out:
methanol (methylated spirit) based varnish.
Headaches, skin and eye irritation. Ethanol (alcohol) based varnish: shellac flakes dissolved in rubbing alcohol.
Cleaning of varnish or ground:
methanol turpentine, naptha (white spirit, turps substitute).
See above for methanol. Irritation of mucous membranes, depression of central nervous system, skin damage; suspected kidney damage.

Ethanol:
ethyl alcohol for cleaning varnish, ink ground or fractint.

Vegetable Cleaning Agent (VCA) for ink .

Cleaning inked plates or tools:
turpentine, naptha (white spirit)
See above for turpentine and naptha Vegetable Cleaning Agent (VCA) or vegetable coooking oil - followed by household detergent. Ethanol for dried ink. Acetone for hardened ink.